Mitochondria is the Powerhouse of the Cell. Why?

Did you learn that the “mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell?”

Mitochondria are cellular organelles that produce energy, but this phrase undervalues its many vital functions.

Mitochondrial health may be the secret key to optimal health, energy, and longevity. Keep reading to learn how you can protect and maximize your mitochondria.

Mitochondrial health may be the secret key to optimal health, energy, and longevity. Click to Tweet

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Table of Contents

 

Mitochondria Definition

Mitochondria are cellular organelles that produce energy through aerobic respiration. Although mitochondria have many functions, they’re best known as the power plants of the cell.

They’re supremely important for your brain and muscles as they use more energy than the rest of your organs.

Mitochondria are like cellular batteries that must be charged constantly through respiration. They supply every cell, tissue, and organ in your body with energy. Because your brain burns more energy than any other organ, your brain cells have a large number of mitochondria.

The health and strength of your body at any moment depends on the health of your mitochondria. If you want to increase your strength and energy potential you need to protect your mitochondria.

 

Mitochondria Function

  • Production of energy (ATP Synthesis) through aerobic respiration  (1)
  • Production of heat: (non-shivering thermogenesis)
  • Independent units within eukaryotic cells with Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
  • Plays a role in apoptosis (programmed cell death) needed to recycle useless or harmful cells
  • Storage of Calcium Ions which have many vital functions including signal transduction, neurotransmitter release, and contraction of muscle cells

Mitochondrial Theory of Aging and Disease

The Mitochondrial Theory of aging proposes that accumulated oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a primary cause of aging.

Proponents of this theory argue that free radicals cause mitochondrial dysfunction, the decline, and the death of mitochondria. Simply, mitochondrial dysfunction causes chronic disease and aging.

Free radicals are a byproduct of energy production. Ironically, mitochondria are vulnerable to the oxidative damage caused by the free radicals they produce.

Unfortunately,  both the quality and quantity of your mitochondria decline as you age. The symptoms of mitochondrial dysfunction include loss of energy, fat storage, decreased muscle mass, and cognitive decline.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is more vulnerable to free radicals than the DNA in the nucleus. This is because antioxidants can’t penetrate the mitochondrial membrane to enter the mitochondria.

The antioxidants found in your diet do not directly protect your mitochondria. Instead, your body produces a mitochondrial protecting enzyme, superoxide dismutase.

 

A dark blue lightning bolt on a light blue background, headline "How to Maximize Your Mitochondria"

How to Maximize Mitochondria

Superoxide dismutase (SOD), is a detoxifying enzyme in your mitochondria. It neutralizes superoxide by converting them back into oxygen. It can even neutralize free radicals on contact.

SOD serves other vital functions. SOD may act (2) as a tumor-suppressor gene, thereby preventing cancer. It may also protect against (3) dementia.

SOD can increase lifespan. For example, the reason women live (4) longer than men could be explained by their superior SOD activity.

 

What is the Best Mitochondria Diet?

Eating a vegetarian diet can boost SOD activity naturally, thereby slowing the aging process. In a study comparing omnivores to vegetarians, the vegetarian group had (5) a 300% higher SOD enzyme activity than the omnivore control group!

Vegetarians have lower rates of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and live longer than non-vegetarians. The reduced risk is due to epigenetic changes or genetic expression (6). Whereby the foods that you eat can turn on and off certain genes.

 

Ergothioneine and Mitochondria

Ergothioneine (ET) is (7) a unique sulfur-containing derivative of the amino acid histidine. Interestingly, you have a protein in your body with the sole purpose of transporting ET from your food to your tissues.

ET is concentrated in areas of relatively high oxidative stress such as the eye, liver, bone marrow, and semen. Therefore, researchers propose that it’s an important part of your physiology.

ET is a “cytoprotectant” or cell protector. It can enter the nucleus and protect your DNA and enter and protect your mitochondria. This makes ET a valuable and potent intro-mitochondrial antioxidant.

You can only get ET from your diet. And cells starved of ET weaken. Because of its value, some researchers argue that ET is worthy of being named a vitamin.

 

Sources of ET for Mitochondria

ET is made by tiny microbes in the soil and is absorbed through the root systems of plants.

Mushrooms are the best source with (8) over 40 times more ET than any other food! Beans are a distant second followed by organ meats. Consider adding mushrooms and beans to your diet as they have many other vital nutrients. Although organ meats have some ET, they have other risk factors.

Caution: You should cook beans and mushrooms and not all mushrooms are safe to eat.

 

Beet Juice and Nitrates For Mitochondria

Nitrates, found in vegetables, are metabolized (9) and converted to nitrite and then to bioactive nitric oxide.

Nitric oxide acts as a vasodilator, meaning it opens blood vessels and increases blood circulation. Thereby the consumption of nitrates may reduce blood pressure and improve athletic performance. Drinking beet juice can significantly improve athletic performance by enhancing the energy production of the mitochondria.

A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-control study tested the effects of beet juice versus de-nitrated beet juice. The study found a strikingly significant improvement (10) in competitive cycling times after drinking a half-liter of beetroot juice. All 9 of the beetroot supplement group achieved better times.

The researchers took muscle biopsies from subjects before and after nitrate supplementation.  They found (11) that you can improve mitochondrial efficiency, human energy production, through your diet.

The improved mitochondrial function may come from increased oxygen efficiency during exercise.

Consider adding nitrate-rich foods like beets and arugula.

Further Reading: How To Lower Blood Pressure

 

Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell

Your body uses oxygen to produce (12) ATP,  the body’s energy currency. Every time you flex a muscle or even think, your body uses up ATP. Thereby you must replenish ATP by breathing more oxygen.

ATP synthase is a microscopic enzyme deep within the cell that produces ATP. This microscopic enzyme is similar to a rotary mechanical motor.

Oxygen generates a flow of protons, like the flow of a water wheel, that causes the enzyme to turn and make ATP. Like any motor, this process is inefficient. Gears can slip and protons can leak out the edges.

 

Nitric Oxide and Mitochondria Energy Production

Beets are one of the most abundant sources of dietary nitrates. Your stomach absorbs (13) dietary nitrates, actively concentrates them, and sends them back to your mouth through your salivary glands.

Your tongue has special bacteria that convert nitrates into nitrites. Then, these nitrites are re-swallowed and re-absorbed. Lastly, nitrites are sent to your cells where they’re converted into nitric oxide.

Nitric oxide improves the proton pump efficiency by reducing slippage, plugging holes, or even taking the place of oxygen.

Thereby beets, rich in nitrates, can reduce oxygen cost, increase oxygen efficiency, and improve athletic performance.

 

Oral Bacteria and Nitrates and Mitochondria 

The natural flora on your tongue bioactivates (14) nitrate by breaking it down into more reactive nitrite.

A study of seven healthy volunteers found that using an antibacterial mouthwash prevented nitrate from being converted to nitrite in the saliva and slowed the rise in plasma nitrite.

Nitrate’s bioactivation into plasma nitrites greatly depends on nitrate conversion by the natural tongue flora.

Antibacterial mouthwash can negate the NO-dependent biological benefits of dietary nitrate.

 

How To Make A Mitochondrial Safe Mouthwash

Green tea is a natural alternative to antibacterial mouthwash.

Researchers found (15) that green tea was more effective than chlorhexidine at reducing plaque. Using green tea as a mouthwash may be safer, cheaper, and better than an antibacterial mouthwash.

Amla berry powder is another mitochondrial protective alternative.

Not only does amla berry kill off cavity-causing bacteria, but it can also suppress (16) the bacteria’s plaque-forming abilities. Additionally, amla berries have over 200 times the amount of antioxidants as blueberries!

Helpful tip: replace your mouthwash with amla berry powder or green tea powder mixed in water.

 

Sulforaphane and Mitochondria

Sulforaphane can double (17) the mass of mitochondria in human cells growing in a Petrie dish. Sulforaphane is a potent antioxidant found in abundance in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, kale, cabbage, and cauliflower.

Sulforaphane is most potent in broccoli sprouts that are cheap and easy to grow.

Caloric Restriction and Mitochondria

Caloric restriction can slow down aging and extend lifespan. When food is plentiful, your cells divide. But when food is scarce, your body goes into conservation mode, slows down cell division, and starts (18) the process of autophagy.

Autophagy occurs when your body decides there isn’t enough food and it starts searching your cells for anything unnecessary. Your body recycles broken or useless cells into new or improved cells.

While you’re fasting, mitochondria are recycled into healthy and productive mitochondria.

Sleep and Mitochondrial Health

Sleep disorders can cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Even undiagnosed sleep disorders, like not getting quality sleep every night, can weaken (19) your mitochondria.

Your body, especially your brain, cleanses mostly during sleep. Your brain uses more energy than any other organ in your body, thereby creating a ton of waste.

It cleanses itself through the glymphatic system. Channels between neurons expand while brain cells shrink to allow cerebrospinal fluid to flush out dead cells, toxins, wastes, and byproducts. This process is 10 times more effective when you’re asleep than when you’re awake.

Insufficient waste removal from a lack of quality sleep leads to inefficient mitochondria. Thereby reducing your health and energy potential and aging you faster.

Inflammation and Mitochondria Dysfunction

Mitochondrial dysfunction can be (20) both a cause and an effect of inflammation. Inflammation is your body’s healing process in response to stress.

Mitochondrial dysfunction prompts your body to make metabolic adaptions that are protective in the short term. But prolonged adaptations can have negative consequences. Consequently, chronic inflammation is a factor in many diseases and speeds up the aging process.

Ways to reduce Inflammation include:

  • Intermittent fasting is a form of stress that sends your body into autophagy thereby recycling damaged cells into new ones. Less damage means less inflammation.
  • Omega-3 fats reduce inflammation while omega-6 fats can cause inflammation. Ground flax seeds and chia seeds are excellent sources of short-chain (ALA). But algae is the safest and most effective source of long-chain (DHA and EPA) omega-3s. 
  • Avoid fish as even wild fish are loaded with toxic heavy metals that cause inflammation.
  • Reduce Your toxic load: eliminate or limit environmental toxins and eat healthy organic food in its natural form. And add anti-oxidant-rich foods to every meal to handle the oxidation of consuming and burning energy.
  • Nitrates: nitrates convert into nitric oxide which can improve your oxygen efficiency and reduce free radical byproducts.

 

Exercise and mitochondria

When you exercise, you’re asking your mitochondria to produce more energy. Your body responds by making more mitochondria to adapt to your needs.

One study found that 12 weeks on an exercise program can significantly improve (21) mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle cells.

Mitochondria and mTOR

mTor is an enzyme that controls the rate at which you age. When mTOR activity is (22) inhibited, Mitochondria lengthen. When mTOR is activated, mitochondria become fragmented. Progressive fragmentation of mitochondria is a possible risk factor for certain cancers.

Learn more about mTOR in How Can You Slow Down Aging? mTOR

 

Limits to the Mitochondrial Theory of Aging

The Mitochondrial Theory of Aging is still unproven as the evidence is mostly correlative.

For example, research has found that animals that produce (23) fewer free radicals have less oxidative damage in their tissues. Although this association appears to be promising it raises more questions.

The longest-living rodent produces high levels of free radicals and sustains exceptionally high oxidative damage levels in its proteins, lipids, and DNA.

The Mitochondrial Theory of Aging is built on the premise that free radicals damage mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Therefore, damage to mtDNA should have a negative correlation with the maximum lifespan. In contrast with the mitochondrial theory, high levels of oxidative damage in mtDNA don’t shorten the lifespan of mice.

Caloric restriction is the only natural treatment that’s proven to increase mean and maximum lifespan in mammals. Caloric restricted animals produce far less mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS), which supports the mitochondrial theory.

Nonetheless, caloric restriction has other benefits including decreasing insulin signaling. Therefore, the increase in longevity can’t be attributed entirely to mitochondrial protection.

The mitochondrial theory remains just a theory as the evidence supporting it is somewhat contradictory and still inconclusive. 

Conclusion: Thoughts on Mitochondria

  • Improving mitochondrial function appears to increase energy production and promote health.
  • The factors that promote mitochondrial health independently promote overall health.
  • There are limits to animal trials, we need more evidence from human studies.
  • Nevertheless, I’m not going to wait for scientific proof before I make healthy changes.
  • Paradoxically, If you want more energy, you need to use up what you have.
  • Your body follows your lead. Whatever changes you make, good or bad, it will try to adapt.
  • If you want to learn more, do your own research, comment, or ask a question.
  • What about mitochondria interests you?

 

Mitochondria Action Plan

  • Avoid toxins in the environment
  • Minimize or cut animal products from your diet
  • Eat plenty of naturally antioxidant-rich foods with every meal
  • Eat plenty of foods rich in omega-3s and reduce omega-6.
  • Avoid free radical promoting substances such as food preservatives, artificial substances, alcohol, and tobacco
  • Use green tea or amla berry powder as a natural and effective mouthwash
  • If you want more energy, get moving

 

Related Posts to Mitochondria

 

Sources Cited

  1. http://www.ivyroses.com/Biology/Organelles/Function-of-Mitochondria.php
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19467856
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2815734/
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2885499/pdf/nihms187988.pdf
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18684339
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18684339
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2885499/pdf/nihms187988.pdf
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17616140
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25325607
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25325607
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21284982
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21284982
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21284982
  14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18793740
  15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23852229
  16. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0040319
  17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22752410
  18. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21157483
  19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25325607
  20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25684584
  21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1540458/
  22. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/10/171005125025.htm
  23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20021368

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